Internet of Things: A Survey for the Individuals' E-Health Applications

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. of Information Technology Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Information Technology Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior Management, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.

4 Visiting Lecturer, Ph.D. in Production and Operations Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


In today's world, the Internet of Things (IoT), which is a fairly new technology, has become a popular topic for discussion. Meanwhile, the increasing demand for personalized healthcare with the assistance of new technologies has created new applications called e-health IoT applications; however, researchers are still attempting to find its applications, therefore they have not been able to focus on comparing these applications. We have aimed at understanding the benefits of e-health IoT applications in comparison to one another. Therefore, this study is an attempt to provide a list of e-health IoT applications for individuals and to prioritize them. The Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method has been used, which is a method for Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and a useful tool for prioritizing multiple alternatives based on criteria. Eight important criteria, based on a comprehensive literature review and experts’ opinions, were determined. Then, by using the FAHP method, the weight of each criterion was calculated. As a result, seven applications identified for individuals were prioritized based on the weight of each criterion and the score of each application in each criterion. Health Effectiveness, Empowerment, Safety, Privacy, and Peace of Mind are the most important criteria in e-health IoT applications for individuals; Cost Saving, round-the-clock Access, and Time-Saving are in the next levels of importance. The results also show that Chronic disease management, Medication reminders, Health monitoring, Air quality, Fall detection, Sleep control and Fitness were respectively ranked as first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh among the IoT applications.


Alagoz, F., Valdez, A. C., Wilkowska, W., Ziefle, M., Dorner, S., & Holzinger, A. (2010). From cloud computing to mobile internet from user focus to culture and hedonism the crucible of mobile health care and wellness applications. In 5th international conference on pervasive computing and applications (ICPCA), 2010, (pp. 38-45).
Alemdar, H., & Ersoy, C. (2010). Wireless sensor networks for healthcare: A survey. Computer Networks, 54(15), 2688-2710.
Ali, F., Islam, S. R., Kwak, D., Khan, P., Ullah, N., Yoo, S. J., & Kwak, K. S. (2018). Type-2 fuzzy ontology–aided recommendation systems for IoT–based healthcare. Computer Communications, 119, 138-155.
Amendola, S., Lodato, R., Manzari, S., Occhiuzzi, C., & Marrocco, G. (2014). RFID technology for o-based personal healthcare in smart spaces.Internet of Things Journal, IEEE, 1(2), 144-152.
Anderson, D., Sweeney, D., Williams, T., Camm, J., & Cochran, J. (2015). An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making. Cengage Learning.
Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of things: A survey.Computer networks54(15), 2787-2805.
Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2014). From" smart objects" to" social objects": The next evolutionary step of the internet of things. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 52(1), 97-105.
Auvinet, E., Multon, F., Saint-Arnaud, A., Rousseau, J., & Meunier, J. (2011). Fall detection with multiple cameras: An occlusion-resistant method based on 3-d silhouette vertical distribution. Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on, 15(2), 290-300.
Ayağ, Z. (2005). A fuzzy AHP-based simulation approach to concept evaluation in a NPD environment. IIE transactions37(9), 827-842.
Bandyopadhyay, D., & Sen, J. (2011). Internet of things: Applications and challenges in technology and standardization. Wireless personal communications, 58(1), 49-69.
Bargh, J. A., & McKenna, K. Y. (2004). The Internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 573-590.
Bazzani, M., Conzon, D., Scalera, A., Spirito, M. A., & Trainito, C. I. (2012). Enabling the IoT paradigm in e-health solutions through the VIRTUS middleware. In Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on (pp. 1954-1959). IEEE.
Bellavista, P., Cardone, G., Corradi, A., & Foschini, L. (2013). Convergence of MANET and WSN in IoT urban scenarios. Sensors Journal, IEEE, 13(10), 3558-3567.
Boulos, M. N. K., & Al-Shorbaji, N. M. (2014). On the Internet of Things, smart cities and the WHO Healthy Cities. International Journal of Health Geographics, 13(10).
Britton, B. K., & Tesser, A. (1991). Effects of time-management practices on college grades. Journal of educational psychology83(3), 405.
Broll, G., Rukzio, E., Paolucci, M., Wagner, M., Schmidt, A., & Hussmann, H. (2009). Perci: Pervasive service interaction with the internet of things. Internet Computing, IEEE, 13(6), 74-81.
Bughin, J., Chui, M., & Manyika, J. (2010). Clouds, big data, and smart assets: Ten tech-enabled business trends to watch. McKinsey Quarterly, 56(1), 75-86.
Bui, N., & Zorzi, M. (2011). Health care applications: A solution based on the internet of things. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies (p. 131). ACM.
Büyüközkan, G., & Çifçi, G. (2012). A combined fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS based strategic analysis of electronic service quality in healthcare industry. Expert Systems with Applications39(3), 2341-2354.
Büyüközkan, G., Çifçi, G., & Güleryüz, S. (2011). Strategic analysis of healthcare service quality using fuzzy AHP methodology. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(8), 9407-9424.
Caporusso, N., Lasorsa, I., Rinaldi, O., & La Pietra, L. (2009). A pervasive solution for risk awareness in the context of fall prevention. InPervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, 2009. PervasiveHealth 2009. 3rd International Conference on (pp. 1-8). IEEE.
Chang, D. Y. (1996). Applications of the extent analysis method on fuzzy AHP. European journal of operational research95(3), 649-655.
Chen, Y. K. (2012). Challenges and opportunities of internet of things. In Design Automation Conference, 2012 17th Asia and South Pacific (ASP-DAC), 2012, (pp. 383-388).
Cho, J., & Lee, J. (2013). Development of a new technology product evaluation model for assessing commercialization opportunities using Delphi method and fuzzy AHP approach. Expert Systems with Applications40(13), 5314-5330.
Cho, J., & Lee, J. (2013). Development of a new technology product evaluation model for assessing commercialization opportunities using Delphi method and fuzzy AHP approach. Expert Systems with Applications40(13), 5314-5330.
Chui, M., Löffler, M., & Roberts, R. (2010). The internet of things. McKinsey Quarterly, 2, 1-9.
Da Xu, L., He, W., & Li, S. (2014). Internet of Things in industries: A survey.Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on10(4), 2233-2243.
Dalkey, N., & Helmer, O. (1963). An experimental application of the Delphi method to the use of experts. Management science, 9(3), 458-467.
Dewald, J. F., Meijer, A. M., Oort, F. J., Kerkhof, G. A., & Bögels, S. M. (2010). The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Sleep medicine reviews14(3), 179-189.
Diaz, M., Juan, G., Lucas, O., & Ryuga, A. (2012). Big Data on the Internet of Things. In 2012 Sixth International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, 2012, (pp. 898-900).
Dohr, A., Modre-Opsrian, R., Drobics, M., Hayn, D., & Schreier, G. (2010). The internet of things for ambient assisted living. In Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG), 2010 Seventh International Conference on, 2010, (pp. 804-809).
Fok, C. L., Julien, C., Roman, G. C., & Lu, C. (2011). Challenges of satisfying multiple stakeholders: quality of service in the internet of things. In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Software Engineering for Sensor Network Applications, 2011.
Fritzen, S. A. (2007). Strategic management of the health workforce in developing countries: what have we learned?. Human resources for health5(1), 4.
Gale, N., & Sultan, H. (2013). Telehealth as ‘peace of mind’: embodiment, emotions and the home as the primary health space for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Health & place21, 140-147.
Gebbie, K., Merrill, J., & Tilson, H. H. (2002). The public health workforce. Health Affairs, 21(6), 57-67.
Gharehchahi, E., Mahvi, A. H., Amini, H., Nabizadeh, R., Akhlaghi, A. A., Shamsipour, M., & Yunesian, M. (2013). Health impact assessment of air pollution in Shiraz, Iran: A two-part study. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 11(1), 11.
Ghasemi, R., Mohaghar, A., Safari, H., & Akbari Jokar, M. R. (2016). Prioritizing the Applications of Internet of Things Technology in the Healthcare Sector in Iran: A Driver for Sustainable Development. Journal of Information Technology Management, 8(1), 155-176.
Ghodsypour, S. H., & O'Brien, C. (1998). A decision support system for supplier selection using an integrated analytic hierarchy process and linear programming. International journal of production economics56, 199-212.
Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., & Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(7), 1645-1660.
Gürses, S., Berendt, B., & Santen, T. (2006). Multilateral security requirements analysis for preserving privacy in ubiquitous environments. In Proceedings of the UKDU Workshop (pp. 51-64).
Haghighi, S. M., Torabi, S. A., & Ghasemi, R. (2016). An integrated approach for performance evaluation in sustainable supply chain networks (with a case study). Journal of cleaner production137, 579-597.
He, W., Yan, G. and Da Xu, L. (2014) ‘Developing vehicular data cloud services in the IoT environment’, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), 1587-1595.
Hu, R. Q., Qian, Y., Chen, H. H., & Jamalipour, A. (2011). Recent progress in machine-to-machine communications. IEEE Commun Mag49, 24-26.
IEEE (2015). Special report the internet of things. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from
Iera, A., Floerkemeier, C., Mitsugi, J., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of things [Guest Editorial]. Wireless Communications, IEEE17(6), 8-9.
IERC (2015). Internet of Things. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from
IHIO (2015). The Latest Document of the Twenty–Year Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from (In Persian)
Istepanaian, R. S., & Zhang, Y. T. (2012). Guest editorial introduction to the special section: 4G health—the long-term evolution of m-health. Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on16(1), 1-5.
Jain, R., & Rao, B. (2013). Application of AHP tool for decision making of choice of technology for extraction of anti-cancer bioactive compounds of plant origin. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process5(1).
Jara, A. J., Zamora, M. A., & Skarmeta, A. F. G. (2011a). An internet of things-based personal device for diabetes therapy management in ambient assisted living (AAL). Personal and Ubiquitous Computing15(4), 431-440.
Jara, A. J., Zamora, M. A., & Skarmeta, A. F. G. (2011b). An ambient assisted living platform to integrate biometric sensors to detect respiratory failures for patients with serious breathing problems. In J. Bravo, R. Hervás & V. Villarreal (Eds.), Ambient Assisted Living (Vol. 6693, pp. 122-130): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Jara, A. J., Zamora, M. A., & Skarmeta, A. F. G. (2014). Drug identification and interaction checker based on IoT to minimize adverse drug reactions and improve drug compliance. Personal and ubiquitous computing18(1), 5-17.
Jasper (2015).Jasper The IoT Cloud. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from
Joshi, R., Banwet, D. K., & Shankar, R. (2011). A Delphi-AHP-TOPSIS based benchmarking framework for performance improvement of a cold chain. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(8), 10170-10182.
Jovanov, E., Milenkovic, A., Otto, C., & De Groen, P. C. (2005). A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation. Journal of NeuroEngineering and rehabilitation2(1), 6.
Kahraman, C., Suder, A., & Bekar, E. T. (2015). Fuzzy multiattribute consumer choice among health insurance options. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 22 (1), 1-20.
Khan, R., Khan, S. U., Zaheer, R., & Khan, S. (2012). Future Internet: the Internet of Things architecture, possible applications and key challenges. In Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT), 2012 10th International Conference on, 2012, (pp. 257-260).
Kim, M., Jang, Y. C., & Lee, S. (2013). Application of Delphi-AHP methods to select the priorities of WEEE for recycling in a waste management decision-making tool. Journal of environmental management, 128, 941-948.
King, H., Aubert, R. E., & Herman, W. H. (1998). Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes care, 21(9), 1414-1431.
Klasnja, P., & Pratt, W. (2012). Healthcare in the pocket: mapping the space of mobile-phone health interventions. Journal of biomedical informatics45(1), 184-198.
Kortuem, G., Kawsar, F., Fitton, D., & Sundramoorthy, V. (2010). Smart objects as building blocks for the internet of things. Internet Computing, IEEE, 14(1), 44-51.
Kramp, T., van Kranenburg, R., & Lange, S. (2013). Introduction to the Internet of Things. In A. Bassi, M. Bauer, M. Fiedler, T. Kramp, R. van Kranenburg, S. Lange & S. Meissner (Eds.), Enabling Things to Talk (pp. 1-10): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Lake, D., Milito, R., Morrow, M., & Vangheese, R. (2014). Internet of Things: Architectural framework for eHealth security. Journal of ICT3&4, 301-330.
Lee, S., Kim, W., Kim, Y. M., Lee, H. Y., & Oh, K. J. (2014). The prioritization and verification of IT emerging technologies using an analytic hierarchy process and cluster analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change87, 292-304.
Leister, W., Hamdi, M., Abie, H., & Poslad, S. (2014). An evaluation scenario for adaptive security in eHealth. PESARO, 14, 6-11.
Li, X., Lu, R., Liang, X., Shen, X., Chen, J., & Lin, X. (2011). Smart community: an internet of things application. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 49(11), 68-75.
Li, Y., Hou, M., Liu, H., & Liu, Y. (2012). Towards a theoretical framework of strategic decision, supporting capability and information sharing under the context of Internet of Things. Information Technology and Management, 13(4), 205-216.
Liao, H., Xu, Z., Zeng, X. J., & Merigó, J. M. (2015). Qualitative decision making with correlation coefficients of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets. Knowledge-Based Systems, 76, 127-138.
Lin, X., Lu, R., Shen, X., Nemoto, Y., & Kato, N. (2009). SAGE: a strong privacy-preserving scheme against global eavesdropping for ehealth systems.Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on27(4), 365-378.
Linjakumpu, T., Hartikainen, S., Klaukka, T., Veijola, J., Kivelä, S. L., & Isoaho, R. (2002). Use of medications and polypharmacy are increasing among the elderly. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 55(8), 809-817.
Liu, C., Zhu, Q., Holroyd, K. A., & Seng, E. K. (2011). Status and trends of mobile-health applications for iOS devices: A developer's perspective. Journal of Systems and Software, 84(11), 2022-2033.
Lorig, K. R., Sobel, D. S., Ritter, P. L., Laurent, D., & Hobbs, M. (2000). Effect of a self-management program on patients with chronic disease. Effective Clinical Practice, 4(6), 256-262.
Luo, H., Ci, S., Wu, D., Stergiou, N. and Siu, K. C. (2010) ‘A remote markerless human gait tracking for e-healthcare based on content-aware wireless multimedia communications’,  IEEE Wireless Communications, 17(1), 44 - 50.
Luo, X., Liu, T., Liu, J., Guo, X., & Wang, G. (2012). Design and implementation of a distributed fall detection system based on wireless sensor networks. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2012(1), 1-13.
Macan, T. H. (1996). Time-management training: Effects on time behaviors, attitudes, and job performance. The Journal of psychology130(3), 229-236.
Mahbanooei, B., Gholipour, A., & Abooyee Ardakan, M. (2016). A competency model for general health managers (Case: Iran medical of health and education). Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 9(2), 217-241.
Majlis Research Center (2009). E-Health Assessment in Iran. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from  (In Persian)
Mattern, F., & Floerkemeier, C. (2010). From the Internet of Computers to the Internet of Things. In From active data management to event-based systems and more (Vol. 6462, pp. 242-259): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
McCullagh, P., & Augusto, J. C. (2011). The internet of Things: The potential to facilitate health and wellness. UPGRADE: The European Journal for the Informatics Professional, XII(1), 59-68.
Milenković, A., Otto, C., & Jovanov, E. (2006). Wireless sensor networks for personal health monitoring: Issues and an implementation. Computer communications, 29(13), 2521-2533.
Miorandi, D., Sicari, S., De Pellegrini, F., & Chlamtac, I. (2012). Internet of things: Vision, applications and research challenges. Ad Hoc Networks, 10(7), 1497-1516.
Mohammadzadeh, A. K., Ghafoori, S., Mohammadian, A., Mohammadkazemi, R., Mahbanooei, B., & Ghasemi, R. (2018). A Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) approach for prioritizing internet of things challenges in Iran. Technology in Society, 53, 124-134.
Moosavi, S. R., Gia, T. N., Rahmani, A. M., Nigussie, E., Virtanen, S., Isoaho, J., & Tenhunen, H. (2015). SEA: a secure and efficient authentication and authorization architecture for IoT-based healthcare using smart gateways. Procedia Computer Science52, 452-459.
Naddafi, K., Hassanvand, M. S., Yunesian, M., Momeniha, F., Nabizadeh, R., Faridi, S., & Gholampour, A. (2012). Health impact assessment of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering9(1), 28.
Nag, A., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2014). Smart Home: Recognition of activities of elderly for 24/7; Coverage issues. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Sensing Technology, Liverpool, UK, 2014, (Vol. 2, pp. 480-489).
Nasiripour, A. A., Rahmani, H., Radfar, R., & Najafbeigi, R. (2012). Effective elements on e-health deployment in Iran. African Journal of Business Management6(16), 5543-5550.
National Information Council (2008). Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World. US Government Printing Office.  Retrieved September 15, 2019, from 
Ng, J. K. Y. (2012). Ubiquitous healthcare: Healthcare systems and applications enabled by mobile and wireless technologies. Journal of Convergence, 3(2), 31-36.
Pang, Z., Zheng, L., Tian, J., Kao-Walter, S., Dubrova, E., & Chen, Q. (2015). Design of a terminal solution for integration of in-home health care devices and services towards the Internet-of-Things. Enterprise Information Systems9(1), 86-116.
Paschou, M., Sakkopoulos, E., Sourla, E., & Tsakalidis, A. (2013). Health Internet of Things: Metrics and methods for efficient data transfer. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory34, 186-199.
Pawar, P., Jones, V., Van Beijnum, B. J. F., & Hermens, H. (2012). A framework for the comparison of mobile patient monitoring systems. Journal of biomedical informatics45(3), 544-556.
Perera, C., Zaslavsky, A., Christen, P., & Georgakopoulos, D. (2014). Context aware computing for the internet of things: A survey. Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE16(1), 414-454.
Plaza, I., MartíN, L., Martin, S., & Medrano, C. (2011). Mobile applications in an aging society: Status and trends. Journal of Systems and Software84(11), 1977-1988.
Qian, H., Mao, Y., Xiang, W., & Wang, Z. (2008). Home environment fall detection system based on a cascaded multi-SVM classifier. In 10th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV), 2008, (pp. 1567-1572).
Rahmani, A. M., Gia, T. N., Negash, B., Anzanpour, A., Azimi, I., Jiang, M., & Liljeberg, P. (2018). Exploiting smart e-Health gateways at the edge of healthcare Internet-of-Things: A fog computing approach. Future Generation Computer Systems, 78, 641-658.
Ranjan, R., & Varma, S. (2012). Object-oriented design for wireless sensor network assisted global patient care monitoring system. International Journal of Computer Applications, 45(3), 8-15.
Rohokale, V. M., Prasad, N. R., & Prasad, R. (2011). A cooperative Internet of Things (IoT) for rural healthcare monitoring and control. In 2nd International Conference on Wireless Communication, Vehicular Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace & Electronic Systems Technology (Wireless VITAE), 2011, (pp. 1-6).
Rougier, C., Meunier, J., St-Arnaud, A., & Rousseau, J. (2011). Robust video surveillance for fall detection based on human shape deformation. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on21(5), 611-622.
Saaty, T. L. (2008). Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences, 1(1), 83-98.
Saaty, ThomasL. (1988). What is the Analytic Hierarchy Process? In G. Mitra, H. Greenberg, F. Lootsma, M. Rijkaert & H. Zimmermann (Eds.), Mathematical Models for Decision Support (Vol. 48, pp. 109-121): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Safari, H., Abdollahi, B., & Ghasemi, R. (2012). Canonical correlation analysis between people criterion and people results criterion in EFQM model. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence23(5-6), 541-555.
Said, O., & Tolba, A. (2012). SEAIoT: scalable e-health architecture based on Internet of things. International Journal of Computer Applications59(13), 44-48.
Savola, R. M., & Abie, H. (2013). Metrics-driven security objective decomposition for an e-health application with adaptive security management. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Adaptive Security, Zurich, Switzerland, 2013, (Vol. 6, p. 6).
Savola, R. M., Abie, H., & Sihvonen, M. (2012). Towards metrics-driven adaptive security management in e-health IoT applications. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Body Area Networks(pp. 276-281). ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering).
Sebestyen, G., Hangan, A., Oniga, S., & Gal, Z. (2014). eHealth solutions in the context of Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Automation, Quality and Testing, Robotics (AQTR), Romania, 2014, (pp. 1-6).
Sebestyen, G., Tirea, A., & Albert, R. (2012). Monitoring human activity through portable devices. Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering5(101), 2012.
Sehgal, A., Perelman, V., Kuryla, S., & Schönwälder, J. (2012). Management of resource constrained devices in the internet of things. Communications Magazine, IEEE50(12), 144-149.
Skiba, D. J. (2013). The Internet of Things (IoT). Nursing education perspectives,34(1), 63-64.
Song, Z., Lazarescu, M. T., Tomasi, R., Lavagno, L., & Spirito, M. A. (2014). High-Level Internet of Things Applications Development Using Wireless Sensor Networks. In S. C. Mukhopadhyay (Ed.), Internet of Things (Vol. 9, pp. 75-109): Springer International Publishing.
Steele, R., & Clarke, A. (2013). The internet of things and next-generation public health information systems. Communications and Network5(3), 4-9.
Subasi, A., Radhwan, M., Kurdi, R., & Khateeb, K. (2018, February). IoT based mobile healthcare system for human activity recognition. In 2018 15th Learning and Technology Conference (L&T) (pp. 29-34). IEEE.
Sundmaeker, H. P. Guillemin, P. Friess, and S. Woelffle (2010). Vision and challenges for realising the internet of things. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from
Swan, M. (2012). Sensor mania! the internet of things, wearable computing, objective metrics, and the quantified self 2.0. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 1(3), 217-253.
Swiatek, P., & Rucinski, A. (2013). IoT as a service system for eHealth. In Proceedings of the IEEE 15th International Conference on eHealth Networking, Applications and Services (HealthCom), Lisbon, Portugal, 2013, (pp. 81–84).
Tan, R. R., Aviso, K. B., Huelgas, A. P., & Promentilla, M. A. B. (2014). Fuzzy AHP approach to selection problems in process engineering involving quantitative and qualitative aspects. Process Safety and Environmental Protection92(5), 467-475.
Tavana, M., Khalili-Damghani, K., & Abtahi, A. R. (2013). A hybrid fuzzy group decision support framework for advanced-technology prioritization at NASA. Expert Systems with Applications40(2), 480-491.
Thierer (2014). Internet of Things & Wearable Technology: Unlocking the Next Wave of Data-Driven Innovation. Richmond Journal of Law & Technology, XXI(2), 1-118.
Touati, F., & Tabish, R. (2013). U-healthcare system: State-of-the-art review and challenges. Journal of medical systems37(3), 1-20.
Triantaphyllou, E. (2000). Multi-criteria decision making methods: a comparative study, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Tsai, C. W., Lai, C. F., Chiang, M. C., & Yang, L. T. (2014). Data mining for internet of things: A survey. Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE16(1), 77-97.
UN (2006). Department of economic and social affairs. Population ageing. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from
Vermesan, O., & Friess, P. (Eds.). (2014). Internet of Things-From Research and Innovation to Market Deployment (pp. 74-75). River Publishers.
Vermesan, O., Friess, P., Guillemin, P., Sundmaeker, H., Eisenhauer, M., Moessner,  K., Gall, F.L., & Cousin, P. (2013). Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda. In Vermesan, O. and Friess, P. (Eds.), Internet of things: converging technologies for smart environments and integrated ecosystems, River Publishers, Denmark, (pp.7–152).
Wan, C. P., & Tang, H. J. (2007). Design of travel management system based on ASP .NET and Castle framework. Journal of Chengdu University of Information Technology4, 009.
Weber, R. H. (2010). Internet of Things–New security and privacy challenges. Computer Law & Security Review, 26(1), 23-30.
WHO (2008). World health report: The World Health Report 2008 - primary Health Care (Now More Than Ever). Retrieved September 15, 2019, from
WHO (2011). WHO: Urban outdoor air pollution database. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from
WHO (2012). National eHealth Strategy Toolkit Part 1 Establishing a National eHealth Vision. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from
WHO (2015). World Health Organization, Media center. Retrieved September 15, 2019, from  
Wissema, J. G. (1982). Trends in technology forecasting. R&D Management, 12(1), 27-36.
Xia, F., Yang, L. T., Wang, L., & Vinel, A. (2012). Internet of things. International Journal of Communication Systems25(9), 1101.
Xu, N. (2002). A survey of sensor network applications. IEEE Communications Magazine40(8), 102-114.
Zahedi, F. (1986). The analytic hierarchy process-a survey of the method and its applications. Interfaces16(4), 96-108.
Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L., & Zorzi, M. (2014). Internet of things for smart cities. Internet of Things Journal, IEEE1(1), 22-32.
Zarei, M., Alambeigi, A., Karimi, P., & Zarei, B. (2015). What drives mergers and acquisitions waves in developing countries? Evidences from Iranian banking industry. Iranian Economic Review, 19 (2), 123-137.
Zarei, M., Jamalian, A., & Ghasemi, R. (2017). Industrial guidelines for stimulating entrepreneurship with the internet of things. In The Internet of Things in the Modern Business Environment (pp. 147-166). IGI Global.
Zarei, M., Mohammadian, A., & Ghasemi, R. (2016). Internet of things in industries: A survey for sustainable development. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 10(4), 419-442.
Zhang, B., Zou, Z., & Liu, M. (2011). Evaluation on security system of internet of things based on fuzzy-AHP method. In E-Business and E-Government (ICEE), 2011 International Conference on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
Zheng, J., Simplot-Ryl, D., Bisdikian, C., & Mouftah, H. T. (2011). The internet of things [Guest Editorial]. Communications Magazine, IEEE49(11), 30-31.