Measuring the Performance of the Virtual Teams in Global Software Development Projects

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Senior Lecturer, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

3 Senior Lecturer, Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

4 Senior Lecturer, Department of Informatics, College of Computing and Informatics, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia

5 Ass. Lecturer, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.


The development teams who are geographically spread, culturally mixed and mainly depend on information and communication technology (ICT) for communication is defined as a global virtual teams (GVTs). Despite the advancement of technologies, achieving the efficient performance of GVTs remains a challenge. The reviewed literature has highlighted the importance of training and development, organizational commitment and motivation in enhancing the performance of GVTs. This study aims to identify the key performance indicators (KPIs), measures, and variables for assisting the GVT performance in global software development projects (GSD). In addition, this study aims to measure the GVTs performance involving online training and development, organizational commitment, and motivation in GSD projects. A survey was conducted among 103 respondents. Then, the performance measurement model (PMM) for GVTs in GSD projects was proposed based on the result of the survey. Finally, the project managers validated the study model. The proposed PMM includes four major components, namely performance measurement processes, mapping strategy for performance evaluation, measurements and performance analysis. The results showed the validity of the proposed model and confirmed that the PMM can assist project managers in measuring the performance of GVTs in GSD Projects.


Albert, W., & Tullis, T. (2013). Measuring the user experience: collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Newnes.
Ale Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S., & Taha, Z. (2009). Virtual teams: A literature review.
Almodarresi,  S. M.,  &  Hajmalek, S. (2014). The Effect  of  Perceived Training  onOrganizational Commitment. International Journal of Scientific Managementand Development, 3(12), 664-669.
Baldwin, T. T., Magjuka, R. J., & Loher, B. T. (1991). The perils of participation: Effects of choice of training on trainee motivation and learning. Personnel psychology, 44(1), 51-65.
Bartlett, K. R. (2001). The relationship between training and organizational commitment: A study in the health care field. Human resource development quarterly, 12(4), 335-352.
Batarseh, F. S., Usher, J. M., & Daspit, J. J. (2017). Collaboration capability in virtual teams: examining the influence on diversity and innovation. International Journal of Innovation Management, 21(04), 1750034.
Brook, R. H., McGlynn, E. A., & Cleary, P. D. (1996). Measuring quality of care. Part 2: Measuring quality of care.335:966-969.
Bulut, C., & Culha, O. (2010). The effects of organizational training on organizational commitment. International Journal of Training and Development, 14(4), 309- 322.
Buzan, T., Buzan, B., & Harrison, J. (2010). The mind map book: Unlock your creativity, boost your memory, change your life. Pearson BBC Active.
Colbert, B. A. (2004). The complex resource-based view: Implications for theory and practice in strategic human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 341-358.
Cotton, J. L., & Tuttle, J. M. (1986). Employee turnover: A meta-analysis and review with implications for research. Academy of management Review, 11(1), 55-70.
Dhar, R. L. (2015). Service quality and the training of employees: The mediating role of organizational commitment. Tourism Management, 46, 419-430.
Dobrzycka, B., Mackowiak-Matejczyk, B., Terlikowska, K. M., Kulesza-Bronczyk, B., Kinalski, M., & Terlikowski, S. J. (2015). Prognostic significance of pretreatment VEGF, survivin, and Smac/DIABLO serum levels in patients with serous ovarian carcinoma. Tumor Biology, 36(6), 4157-4165.
Facteau, J. D., Dobbins, G. H., Russell, J. E., Ladd, R. T., & Kudisch, J. D. (1995). The influence of general perceptions of the training environment on pretraining motivation and perceived training transfer. Journal of management, 21(1), 1-25.
Geister, S., Konradt, U., & Hertel, G. (2006). Effects of process feedback on motivation, satisfaction, and performance in virtual teams. Small group research, 37(5), 459-489.
Gibson, C. B., & Cohen, S. G. (Eds.). (2003). Virtual teams that work: Creating conditions for virtual team effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons.
Guthrie, G. (2010). Basic research methods: An entry to social science research. SAGE Publications India.
Harrati, N., Bouchrika, I., Tari, A., & Ladjailia, A. (2016). Exploring user satisfaction for e-
Henderson, J. C., & Lee, S. (1992). Managing I/S design teams: a control theories perspective. Management science, 38(6), 757-777.
Hill, G. M. (2013). The complete project management office handbook. CRC Press.
Hwang, W., & Salvendy, G. (2010). Number of people required for usability evaluation: the 10±2 rule. Communications of the ACM, 53(5), 130-133.
Kitchenham, B. (2004). Procedures for performing systematic reviews. Keele, UK, Keele University33(2004), 1-26.
Klein, H. J., & Mulvey, P. W. (1995). Two investigations of the relationships among group goals, goal commitment, cohesion, and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 61(1), 44-53.
Lee, M. R. (2013). Leading virtual project teams: Adapting leadership theories and communications techniques to 21st century organizations. CRC Press.
Lurey, J. S., & Raisinghani, M. S. (2001). An empirical study of best practices in virtual teams. Information & Management, 38(8), 523-544.
Marr, B. (2015). Key performance indicators for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1), 61- 89.
Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace. Sage Publications.
Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of vocational behavior, 14(2), 224-247.
Naqvi, S. M. M. R., & Bashir, S. (2015). IT-expert retention through organizational commitment: A study of public sector information technology professionals in Pakistan. Applied Computing and Informatics, 11(1), 60-75.
Noe, R. A., & Schmitt, N. (1986). The influence of trainee attitudes on training effectiveness: Test of a model. Personnel psychology, 39(3), 497-523.
Olomolaiye, P., Jayawardane, A., & Harris, F. (1998). Construction productivity management. Longman.
O'Reilly, C. A., & Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of applied psychology, 71(3), 492.
Phillips, J. J., & Stone, R. D. (2002). How to Measure Training Result. Mc-Graw Hill, New York.
Powell, A., Piccoli, G., & Ives, B. (2004). Virtual teams: a review of current literature and directions for future research. ACM Sigmis Database, 35(1), 6-36.
Saxena, A., & Burmann, J. (2014, May). Factors affecting team performance in globally distributed setting. In Proceedings of the 52nd ACM conference on Computers and people research (pp. 25-33). ACM.
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2011). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. Chichester: John Willey & Sons Ltd. 2010.
Sundqvist, E., Backlund, F., & Chronéer, D. (2014). What is project efficiency and effectiveness? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 119, 278-287.
Tai, W. T. (2006). Effects of training framing, general self-efficacy and training motivation on trainees' training effectiveness. Personnel Review, 35(1), 51-65.
Von Würtemberg, L. M., Franke, U., Lagerström, R., Ericsson, E., & Lilliesköld, J. (2011, July). IT project success factors: An experience report. In Technology Management in the Energy Smart World (PICMET), 2011 Proceedings of PICMET'11: (pp. 1-10). IEEE.
Weimann, P., Pollock, M., Scott, E., & Brown, I. (2013). Enhancing team performance through tool use: How critical technology-related issues influence the performance of virtual project teams. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 56(4), 332-353.
Wildman, J. L., & Griffith, R. L. (2015). Leading Global Teams Means Dealing with Different. In Leading Global Teams (pp. 1-10). Springer New York.
Wycoff, J., & Trade, B. (1991). Mindmapping: Your personal guide to exploring creativity and problem-solving. The Berkley Publishing Group, New York.
Yanson, R., & Johnson, R. D. (2016). An empirical examination of e-learning design: The  role  of  trainee  socialization  and   complexity   in   short   term training. Computers & Education, 101, 43-54.
Yusof, S. A. M., & Zakaria, N. (2012). Exploring the state of discipline on the formation of swift trust within global virtual teams. In System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 475-482). IEEE.