Identification of Stakeholders in Personal Health Records Using Blockchain Technology: A Comprehensive Review

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Operations Management and Information Technology, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.



Leveraging supplementary technology such as Blockchain has the potential to alter the stakeholders involved in a system. Paying attention to stakeholders is one of the main pillars of developing a system. Evidence has shown that Blockchain can solve existing challenges and add new capabilities. These actions will change the stakeholders of PHR. If a value is different for everyone, at the first stage, stakeholders should be identified, and that is our goal in this study. The research adhered to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. To this end, the study utilized databases including MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for English language articles, while the "" database was accessed for Persian language articles. Finally, 35 articles were chosen from searching databases, and six extra articles were selected from reviewing the final articles' references. Stakeholders were categorized into 15 groups. The patient (individual) was identified as the most frequent stakeholder (41 times), and infrastructure providers and the token exchange market were mentioned once each. The usage type is categorized into four groups: direct user interaction, data user, impact user, and financial beneficiaries, comprising six, eight, four, and four stakeholders, respectively. Patients (individuals) use the four groups, and health care providers, policymakers, hospitals, and the government each use two groups. Intelligent contracts are neglected in PHR, which can significantly impact the motivation and creation of incentives for using different stakeholders. The grouping presented here can be used in the preparation of the business model of PHR based on Blockchain. Data has the most usage for stakeholders and strengthens and supports investments in technologies such as Blockchain as an infrastructure for creating data markets, new business models, and creating value.


Main Subjects

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