The Role of E-Word of Mouth in the Relationship between Online Destination Image, E-satisfaction, E-Trust & E-Service Quality for International Tourists Perception

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D, Associate Professor Department of HR, Business College, Jadara University, Irbid, Jordan.

2 Department of Business Administration & Business College, Jadara University, Irbid, Jordan.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of HR, Business College, Jadara University, Irbid, Jordan.

4 Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration & HR, Business College, Jadara University, Irbid, Jordan.

5 Department of Business Administration, Business College, Jadara University, Irbid, Jordan.

6 PhD Candidate, Department of Management Information system, Faculty of Science & Information Technology, Cyprus International University, Nicosia, Cyprus.

10.22059/jitm.2021.80756

Abstract

Destination Image as a development which comprises of interrelated assessments converged with general impressions and convictions dependent on data preparing from an assortment of sources after some time; little research has concentrated on picture arrangement corresponding to this kind of goal, this article explores the mediating role of Online Image on the connection between E-WOM and  E-service quality, E-satisfaction, E- trust The result of Structural equation Modelling  (AMOS) path analysis affirmed that estimation model fulfilled the necessity and evidence the solidness of things, builds and correlation. All the four conditions for estimation model was met: things stacking above 0.7; unwavering composite quality (CR) above 0.7; Average Variance Extraction (AVE) above 0.5. The scholastics and industry will profit by the usage of this examination. Likewise, the tourist industry division can draw from these outcomes as references and proposals inside the impediments of the study. Future research headings were proposed to deal with the restrictions.

Keywords


Abodeeb, J., Wilson, E., & Moyle, B. (2015). Shaping destination image and identity: insights for Arab tourism at the Gold Coast, Australia. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9(1), 6-21.
Ahmad, N., Vveinhardt, J., & Ahmed, R. (2014). Impact of word of mouth on the consumer buying decision. European journal of business and management, 6(31).
Alcañiz, E. B., García, I. S., & Blas, S. S. (2009). The functional-psychological continuum in the cognitive image of a destination: A confirmatory analysis. Tourism Management, 30(5), 715-723.
Al-Da’abseh, TARIQ., Aljawarneh, Nader & Shwiyat, Ziyad (2018). Marketing Mix Strategies and Its Impact on Organizational Performance Efficiency in the Jordanian Company for Investment and Supply-Safeway: An Empirical Study. Invention Journal of Research Technology in Engineering & Management, 2(2), 14-23.
Al-Jawarneh, N. M. S (2016). Case Study: Business Management School at the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus and how Strategic Thinking and Planning Can Improve the Performance of the Organization to Maintain Stable between Competitors.‏
Aljawarneh, N. M. S., & Atan, T. (2018). Linking Tolerance to Workplace Incivility, Service Innovative, Knowledge Hiding, and Job Search Behavior: The Mediating Role of Employee Cynicism. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 11(4), 298-320.
Aljawarneh, N., & Al-Omari, Z. (2018). The Role of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems ERP in Improving Customer Relationship Management CRM: An Empirical Study of Safeway Company of Jordan. International Journal of Business and Management, 13(8), 86-100.
Al-Kwifi, O. S. (2015). The impact of destination images on tourists’ decision making: A technological exploratory study using fMRI. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 6(2), 174-194.
Al-Omari, Z. S., Aljawarneh, N., Davut, S., & Salah, A. (2018). The Impact of Marketing Mix Elements on Forming Mental Images about Islamic Banks in Jordan: An Empirical Study. OFFICIAL, 12, 54.
Al-Omari, Z., Alomari, K., & Aljawarneh, N. (2020). The role of empowerment in improving the internal process, customer satisfaction, learning and growth. Management Science Letters, 10(4), 841-848.
Alwagfi, A. A., Aljawarneh, N. M., & Alomari, K. A (2020). Work Ethics and Social Responsibility: Actual and Aspiration. Journal of Management Research, (12)1, 26-36.
Anderson, J.; Gerbing, D.(1988). Structural equation practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychol. Bull., 103, 411–423, doi:10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411.
Anderson, R. E., & Srinivasan, S. S. (2003). E‐satisfaction and e‐loyalty: A contingency framework. Psychology & Marketing, 20(2), 123-138.
Bai, B., Law, R., & Wen, I. (2008). The impact of website quality on customer satisfaction and purchase intentions: Evidence from Chinese online visitors. International journal of hospitality management, 27(3), 391-402.
Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of tourism research, 26(4), 868-897.
Baron, R.M.; Kenny, D.(1986). Moderator-Mediator Variables Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol., 51, 1173–1182, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.
Bentler, P.M.; Bonett, D.G.(1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychol. Bull., 88, 588–606.
Browne, M.W.; Cudeck, R . (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In Testing Structural Equation Models; Sage: Newbury Park, CA, USA, p. 136.
Browne, M.W.; Cudeck, R.(1993) Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In Testing Structural Equation Models; Sage: Newbury Park, CA, USA, p. 136.
Chen, Q., Rodgers, S., & He, Y. (2008). A critical review of the e-satisfaction literature. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(1), 38-59.
Crompton, J. L. (1979). An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of Travel Research, 17(1), 18–23.
Doosti, S., Jalilvand, M. R., Asadi, A., Khazaei Pool, J., & Mehrani Adl, P. (2016). Analyzing the influence of electronic word of mouth on visit intention: the mediating role of tourists’ attitude and city image. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 2(2), 137-148.
Dwivedi, M. (2009). Online destination image of India: A consumer-based perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(2), 226-232.
Dwivedi, M., Yadav, A., & Raghavjibhai Patel, V. (2009). The online destination image of Goa. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 1(1), 25-39.
Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of the destination image. Journal of tourism studies, 2(2), 2-12.
Fornell, C.; Larcker, D.(1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J. Mark. Res., 18, 39–50, doi:10.2307/3151312.
Garay, L., & Morales, Pérez, S. (2017). Understanding the creation of destination images through a festival's Twitter conversation. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 8(1), 39-54.
Ghane, S. O. H. E. I. L. A., Fathian, M., & Gholamian, M. R. (2011). The full relationship between e-satisfaction, e-trust, e-service quality, and e-loyalty: The case of Iran e-banking. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 33(1), 1-6.
González-Rodríguez, M. R., Martínez-Torres, R., & Toral, S. (2016). Post-visit and pre-visit tourist destination image through eWOM sentiment analysis and perceived helpfulness. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(11), 2609-2627.
Gunn, C. (1972). Vacationscape: Designing Tourist Regions. Austin: Bureau of Business Research. 1988 Tourism Planning, Taylor and Francis, New York, NY.
Hair, J.; Anderson, R.; Tatham, R.; Black, W.(1998). Multivariate Data Analysis, 5th ed.; Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
Herle, F. A. (2018). The Impact of Destination Image on Tourists’ Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Context of Domestic Tourism. Marketing–from Information to Decision Journal, 1(2), 14-26.
Hu, L.; Bentler, P.M.(1990). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct. Equ. Model. A Multidiscip.J., 6, 1–55, doi:10.1080/10705519909540118.
Huete Alcocer, N., & López Ruiz, V. R. (2019). The role of destination image in tourist satisfaction: the case of a heritage site. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 1-18.
Hunter, W. C. (2016). The social construction of tourism online destination image: A comparative semiotic analysis of the visual representation of Seoul. Tourism Management, 54, 221-229.
Kim, J., Jin, B., & Swinney, J. L. (2009). The role of retail quality, e-satisfaction and e-trust in the online loyalty development process. Journal of retailing and Consumer Services, 16(4), 239-247.
Kim, Y. G. & Li, G. (2009). Customer satisfaction with and loyalty towards online travel products: a transaction cost economics perspective. Tourism Economics, 15(4), 825-846.
Kladou, S., & Mavragani, E. (2015). Assessing destination image: An online marketing approach and the case of TripAdvisor. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(3), 187-193.
Kladou, S., A. Giannopoulos, A., & Assiouras, I. (2014). Matching tourism type and destination image perceptions in a country context. Journal of Place Management and Development, 7(2), 141-152.
Költringer, C., & Dickinger, A. (2015). Analyzing destination branding and image from online sources: A web content mining approach. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1836-1843.
Litvin, S. W., Goldsmith, R. E., & Pan, B. (2008). Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. Tourism Management, 29(3), 458-468.
Llodra-Riera, I., Martínez-Ruiz, M. P., Jiménez-Zarco, A. I., & Izquierdo-Yusta, A. (2015). Assessing the influence of social media on tourists’ motivations and image formation of a destination. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 7(4), 458-482.
Lluís Garay Soledad Morales Pérez. (, 2017). Understanding the creation of destination images through a festival's Twitter conversation. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, Vol. 8 Iss.1, pp. 39 – 54.
Loncaric, D., Ribaric, I., & Farkas, V. (2016). THE ROLE OF ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH IN THE TOURISM MARKET. In Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry (p. 188). The University of Rijeka, Faculty of Tourism & Hospitality Management.
Lopes, S. D. F. (2011). Destination image: Origins, developments and implications. PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 9(2), 305-315.
Maisam, S., & Mahsa, R. D. (2016). Positive word of mouth marketing: Explaining the roles of value congruity and brand love. Journal of Competitiveness, 8(1), 19-37.
Mak, A. H. (2017). Online destination image: Comparing the national tourism organisation's and tourists' perspectives. Tourism Management, 60, 280-297.
Marsh, H.W.; Hocevar, D.(1985). Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: First- and higher-order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychol. Bull., 97, 562–582, doi:10.1037/0033-2909.97.3.562.
McDonald, R.P.; Marsh, H.W.(1990). Choosing a multivariate model: Non-centrality and goodness of fit. Psychol. Bull., 107, 247–255, doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.247.
Mohammed, M. E., Wafik, G. M., Jalil, S. G. A.,& El Hassan, Y. A. (2016). The Effects of E-Service Quality Dimensions on Tourist's e-Satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Systems, 9(1), 12-20.
Naz, F. (2013). Word of mouth and its impact on marketing.
Podsakoff, P.; MacKenzie, S.; Lee, J.; Podsakoff, N.(2003). Common method biases in behavioural research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. J. Appl. Psychol. 2003, 88, 879–903, doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.
Prayogo, R. R., Ketaren, F. L. S., & Hati, R. M. (2016, November). Electronic Word of Mouth, Destination Image, and Satisfaction Toward Visit Intention: an Empirical Study in Malioboro Street, Yogyakarta. In 1st International Conference on Social and Political Development (ICOSOP 2016). Atlantis Press.
Ramos Mir, V., & Duque, M. (2011). Tourism's destination dominance and marketing website usefulness. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(4), 552-564.
Rodrigues, A. I., Correia, A., Kozak, M., & Tuohino, A. (2015). Lake-destination image attributes content analysis of text and pictures in Marketing Places and Spaces (pp. 293-314). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Romadhoni, B., Hadiwidjojo, D., Hadiwidjojo, N., & Aisjah, S. (2015). Relationship between E-Service Quality, E-Satisfaction, E-Trust, E-Commitment in Building Customer E-Loyalty: A Literature Review. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 4(2), 1-9.
Setiawan, P. Y., Troena, E. A., & Armanu, N. (2014). The effect of e-WOM on destination image, satisfaction and loyalty. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 3(1), 22-29.
Sharma, G. (2017). Service Quality, Satisfaction and Loyalty on Online Marketing: An Empirical Investigation. Global Journal of Management and Business Research.
Shen, H., Song, C., Li, M., & Jiang, Q. (2015). Shaping destination images through social networking sites: A case study of Singapore. Advances in Hospitality and Leisure (pp. 89-107). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Chicago.
Tanaka, J.S.; Huba, G.J.(1985). A fit index for covariance structure models under arbitrary GLS estimation. Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol., 38, 197–201, doi:10.1111/j.2044-8317.1985.tb00834.x.
Tasci, A., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of Travel Research, 45, 413–425.
Ting, O. S., Ariff, M. S. M., Zakuan, N., Sulaiman, Z., & Saman, M. Z. M. (2016, May). E-Service Quality, E-Satisfaction and E-Loyalty of Online Shoppers in Business to Consumer Market; Evidence from Malaysia. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 131, No. 1, p. 012012). IOP Publishing.
Vijay, T. S., Prashar, S., & Sahay, V. (2019). The Influence of Online Shopping Values and Web Atmospheric Cues on E-Loyalty: Mediating Role of E-Satisfaction. Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research, 14(1), 1-15.