Visual attention to the Logos of Popular and Unknown Brands: An Eye-tracking Study during Decision-making

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Management, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran.

2 Assistant Prof., Department of Management, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran.

3 Prof., Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics University of Tehran- Tehran- Iran.

4 Associate Prof., School of Economics, Business Administration and Accounting, Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.



A logo epitomizes a brand and depicts the picture of a product; consequently, attention, as an initial step of the AIDA model, to the logo is a good-looking index to survey the cognitive processing during consumers’ decision-making. Eye tracker extracts the visual attention data. For these reasons and appreciated from fixation duration, in the present study, the process of visual attention to the logo of a brand during decision-making was studied. To analyze the effects of the popularity of a brand on consumers’ decision-making, visual attention of 53 undergraduate students was studied. The brands were selected from two categories of beverages: soft drinks and non-alcoholic beers. Prior to the test, the participants had declared their favorite categories. The results showed that 75% of the participants selected a popular brand of their unfavorite categories. On the other hand, the difference of fixation duration between logos of popular and unknown brands did not directly relate to the choices of the participants. Therefore, these results did not correspond with the AIDA model. Additionally, cognitive processing toward the unknown brands’ logos was more than the popular brands’ logos. Moreover, the consumers who changed their decision were subjected to more cognitive processing compared to the consumers who insisted on their selection. In contrast to the AIDA model which implies that decision-making is triggered by attention, the present study indicated that decision making can also be influenced by the popularity of the brand. This can be due to optimization of the working memory usage by the brain. Finally, these results could be helpful in creating a new brand. According to the AIDA model, the more attractive logo and package of the brand, the more chance for being selected by the customers. However, our findings emphasize the importance of the popularity of the brand.


Achar, C., So, J., Agrawal, N., & Duhachek, A. (2016). What we feel and why we buy: the influence of emotions on consumer decision-making. Current Opinion in Psychology, 10, 166–170.
Alghowinem, S., Alshehri, M., Goecke, R., & Wagner, M. (2015). Exploring Eye Activity as an Indication of Emotional States Using an Eye-tracking Sensor. Springer.
Banerjee, S., & Chua, A. Y. K. (2019). Identifying the antecedents of posts’ popularity on Facebook Fan Pages. Journal of Brand Management.
Bossel, V., Geyskens, K., & Goukens, C. (2019). Facing a trend of brand logo simplicity: The impact of brand logo design on consumption. Food Quality and Preference, 71(2019), 129–135.
Buzzell, R. D., & Wiersema, F. D. (1981). Modelling changes in market share: A cross-sectional analysis. Strategic Management Journal, 2(1), 27–42.
Dean, D. H. (1999). Brand Endorsement, Popularity, and Event Sponsorship as Advertising Cues Affecting Consumer Pre-Purchase Attitudes. Journal of Advertising, 28(3), 1–12.
Felix, R., & Hinck, W. (2016). Attention to Print Advertising: An Eye Tracking Study in the Context of Airline Advertisements (pp. 252–255). Springer, Cham.
Fidelis, B. T., Henrique, J., Oliveira, C., De Moura, J., Giraldi, E., Oliveira, R., & Santos, J. (2017). Sexual appeal in print media advertising: effects on brand recall and fixation time. Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, 21(1), 42–58.
Fiedler, S., & Glöckner, A. (2012). The dynamics of decision making in risky choice: An eye-tracking analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(335), 1–18.
Foroudi, P. (2019). Influence of brand signature, brand awareness, brand attitude, brand reputation on hotel industry’s brand performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76, 271–285.
Francisco-Maffezzolli, E. C., Semprebon, E., & Muller Prado, P. H. (2014). Construing loyalty through brand experience: The mediating role of brand relationship quality. Journal of Brand Management, 21(5), 446–458.
Glöckner, A., & Herbold, A.-K. (2011). An eye-tracking study on information processing in risky decisions: Evidence for compensatory strategies based on automatic processes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24(1), 71–98.
Hadiyati, E. (2016). STUDY OF MARKETING MIX AND AIDA MODEL TO PURCHASING ON LINE PRODUCT IN INDONESIA. British Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(7), 49–62.
Hautala, J., & Parviainen, T. (2014). Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e108937.
Hunt, S. D. (2019). The ethics of branding, customer-brand relationships, brand-equity strategy, and branding as a societal institution. Journal of Business Research, 95(2019), 408–416.
Japutra, A., Molinillo, S., & Wang, S. (2018). Aesthetic or self-expressiveness? Linking brand logo benefits, brand stereotypes and relationship quality. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 44(2018), 191–200.
Kärnä, S., Junnonen, J., & Sorvala, V. (2009). Modelling structure of customer satisfaction with construction. Journal of Facilities Management, 7(2), 111–127.
Li, J., & Yu, H. (2013). An Innovative Marketing Model Based on AIDA: - A Case from E-bank Campus-marketing by China Construction Bank. IBusiness, 5(3), 47–51.
Lourenção, M. T. de A., & Giraldi, J. de M. E. (2017). Development of an identity model for sector brands. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 21(3), 91–117.
Ludwig, J., Jaudas, A., & Achtziger, A. (2019). The role of motivation and volition in economic decisions: Evidence from eye movements and pupillometry. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 1–16.
Machado, J. C., Vacas-de-Carvalho, L., Azar, S. L., André, A. R., & dos Santos, B. P. (2019). Brand gender and consumer-based brand equity on Facebook: The mediating role of consumer-brand engagement and brand love. Journal of Business Research, 96, 376–385.
Magnini, V. P., Karande, K., Singal, M., & Kim, D. (2013). The effect of brand popularity statements on consumers’ purchase intentions: The role of instrumental attitudes toward the act. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34(2013), 160–168.
Mahmoodi-Aghdam, M., Dehghani, M., Ahmadi, M., Khorrami Banaraki, A., & Khatibi, A. (2017). Chronic Pain and Selective Attention to Pain Arousing Daily Activity Pictures: Evidence From an Eye Tracking Study. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 8(6), 467–478.
Müller, B., Kocher, B., & Crettaz, A. (2013). The effects of visual rejuvenation through brand logos. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 82–88.
Oliveira, R. De, Henrique, J., & Oliveira, C. De. (2015). Public policies and selective visual attention : the effectiveness of awareness messages among young people about the consumption of alcoholic beverages in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology, 2(5), 1–9.
Orquin, J. L., Ashby, N. J. S., & Clarke, A. D. F. (2016). Areas of Interest as a Signal Detection Problem in Behavioral Eye-Tracking Research. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 29(2), 103–115.
Orquin, J. L., & Holmqvist, K. (2018). Threats to the validity of eye-movement research in psychology. Behav Res, 50, 1645–1656.
Orquin, J. L., & Mueller Loose, S. (2013). Attention and choice: A review on eye movements in decision making. Acta Psychologica, 144(1), 190–206.
Park, C. W., Eisingerich, A. B., Pol, G., & Park, J. W. (2013). The role of brand logos in firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 66(2013), 180–187.
Pekka J.Korhonen, Pekka Malo, Tommi Pajala, Niklas Ravaja, Outi Somervuori, J. W. (2018). Context matters: The impact of product type, emotional attachment and information overall on choice quality. European Journal of Operational Research, 264(1), 270–279.
Russo, J. E. (1978). Eye Fixations Can Save the World: a Critical Evaluation and a Comparison Between Eye Fixations and Other Information Processing Methodologies. ACR North American Advances, 5, 561–570.
Santos, R. D. O. J. dos, Oliveira, J. H. C. de, Rocha, J. B., & Giraldi, J. D. M. E. (2015). Eye Tracking in Neuromarketing: A Research Agenda for Marketing Studies. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 7(1), 32.
Waechter, S., Sütterlin, B., & Siegrist, M. (2015). Desired and Undesired Effects of Energy Labels—An Eye-Tracking Study. PLOS ONE, 10(7).
Wedel, M., & Pieters, R. (2008). Visual marketing : from attention to action (1St ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Zhang, L.-M., Zhang, R.-X., Jeng, T.-S., & Zeng, Z.-Y. (2019). Cityscape Protection Using VR and Eye Tracking Technology. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, 102639.
Zhang, S., Shen, L., Zhang, R., Yang, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Robust eye detection using deeply-learned gaze shifting path. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, 55, 654–659.
Zuschke, N. (2019). An analysis of process-tracing research on consumer decision-making. Journal of Business Research.