Key Factors for Defining the Conceptual Framework for Quality Assurance in E-Learning

Document Type : Special Issue: Deep Learning for Visual Information Analytics and Management.


1 Scholarships and Cultural Relations Directorate, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Computer Science Department, College of Pure Sciences of Education, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.

3 Assistant Professor, Computer center/University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.


E-learning has evolved for more than a decade, and universities are gradually embracing e-learning to provide more learning experience for their learners. E-learning is the use of electronic means through which training is received and obtained. E-learning offers a wide range of advantages (time and room mobility, cost-effectiveness, etc.) and also overcomes the limitations of digital learning that have led to the widespread adoption of the institute. The poor quality of e-learning services is one of the main causes of the number of errors collected. Experts proposed performance models for e-learning systems, but most relied solely on pedagogical opinions. From a software perspective, very limited attention is paid to evaluating the performance of e-learning applications. It is therefore quite difficult to evaluate the overall performance of the e-learning scheme effectively. The aim of this study is to draw up separate stakeholders in the e-learning system by providing a roadmap to ensure the effectiveness of their e-learning facilities, particularly in emerging countries and Iraq. The higher education data system guarantees and measures the performance of its e-learning system in its own way, as there is no specific definition of the performance of the e-learning system. This work is expected to be ready to harmonize the various stakeholders to a satisfactory standard within the performance framework.


Ali, G. E., & Magalhaes, R. (2008). Barriers to implementing e‐learning: a Kuwaiti case study. International Journal of Training and Development, 12(1), 36-53.
Baker, W. M., Lusk, E. J., & Neuhauser, K. L. (2012). On the use of cell phones and other electronic devices in the classroom: Evidence from a survey of faculty and students. Journal of Education for Business, 87(5), 275-289.
Baruque, L. B., Baruque, C. B., & Melo, R. N. (2007). Towards a framework for corporate e-learning evaluation. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2007 Euro American conference on Telematics and information systems.
Bhuasiri, W., Xaymoungkhoun, O., Zo, H., Rho, J. J., & Ciganek, A. P. (2012). Critical success factors for e-learning in developing countries: A comparative analysis between ICT experts and faculty. Computers & Education, 58(2), 843-855.
Borstorff, P. C., & Lowe, S. K. (2007). Student perceptions and opinions toward e-learning in the college environment. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 11(2).
Chawinga, W. D., & Zozie, P. A. (2016). Increasing access to higher education through open and distance learning: Empirical findings from Mzuzu University, Malawi. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4).
Chen, S.-J. (2014). Instructional design strategies for intensive online courses: An objectivist-constructivist blended approach. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 13(1).
Ćukušić, M., Alfirević, N., Granić, A., & Garača, Ž. (2010). e-Learning process management and the e-learning performance: Results of a European empirical study. Computers & Education, 55(2), 554-565.
Dubey, S. K., Ghosh, S., & Rana, A. (2012). Comparison of software quality models: an analytical approach. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2(2), 111-119.
Egbert, J. (2009). Supporting learning with technology: Essentials of classroom practice. Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Hatami, A. (2015). The effect of collaborative learning and self-assessment on self-regulation. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(15), 2164-2167.
Heidarian, N. (2016). Investigating the effect of using self-assessment on Iranian efl learners' writing. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(28), 80-89.
Inglis, A. (2005). Quality improvement, quality assurance, and benchmarking: Comparing two frameworks for managing quality processes in open and distance learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 6(1).
Inglis, A. (2008). Approaches to the validation of quality frameworks for e-learning. Quality Assurance in Education, 16(4), 347-362.
Islam, M. T., & Selim, A. S. M. (2006). Information and communication technologies for the promotion of open and distance learning in Bangladesh. Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development, 4(1), 36-42.
Kashorda, M., & Waema, T. (2014). E-readiness survey of kenyan universities (2013) report. Nairobi: Kenya Education Network.
Khan, B. H. (2004). Comprehensive approach to program evaluation in open and distributed learning (CAPEODL) model. Introduced in the Program Evaluation course. George Washington University.
Khan, G. F., Moon, J., Rhee, C., & Rho, J. J. (2010). E-government skills identification and development: toward a staged-based user-centric approach for developing countries. Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems, 20(1), 1-31.
Koohang, A., Riley, L., Smith, T., & Schreurs, J. (2009). E-learning and constructivism: From theory to application. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 5(1), 91-109.
Kundi, G. M., Nawaz, A., & Khan, S. (2010). The predictors of success for e-learning in higher education institutions (HEIs) in NW. FP, Pakistan. JISTEM-Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management, 7(3), 545-578.
Makokha, G. L., & Mutisya, D. N. (2016). Status of e-learning in public universities in Kenya. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3).
Mason, R., & Rennie, F. (2008). The e-Learning handbook: Designing distributed learning. NY: Routeledge, 194.
Masoumi, D. (2010). Quality in E-learning within a cultural context. Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.
Masoumi, D., & Lindström, B. (2012). Quality in e‐learning: a framework for promoting and assuring quality in virtual institutions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(1), 27-41.
Matar, N., Hunaiti, Z., Halling, S., & Matar, Š. (2011). E-Learning acceptance and challenges in the Arab region ICT acceptance, investment and organization: Cultural practices and values in the arab world (pp. 184-200), IGI Global.
Mayoka, K., & Kyeyune, R. (2012). An analysis of elearning information system adoption in ugandan universities: Case of makerere university business school. Information Technology Research Journal, 2(1), 1-7.
McKevitt, C. T. (2016). Engaging students with self-assessment and tutor feedback to improve performance and support assessment capacity. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 13(1), 2.
Mirza, A. A., & Al-Abdulkareem, M. (2011). Models of e-learning adopted in the Middle East. Applied computing and informatics, 9(2), 83-93.
Mtebe, J. S., & Raisamo, R. (2014). A Model for Assessing Learning Management System Success in Higher Education in Sub‐Saharan Countries. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 61(1), 1-17.
Mutisya, D. N., & Makokha, G. L. (2016). Challenges affecting adoption of e-learning in public universities in Kenya. E-Learning and Digital Media, 13(3-4), 140-157.
Ozarslan, Y., & Ozan, O. (2016). Self‐Assessment Quiz Taking Behaviour Analysis in an Online Course. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning, 19(2), 15-31.
Ozkan, S., Koseler, R., & Baykal, N. (2009). Evaluating learning management systems: Adoption of hexagonal e-learning assessment model in higher education. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 3(2), 111-130.
Paulsen, M. F. (2003). Experiences with learning management systems in 113 European institutions. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 6(4), 134-148.
Penna, M. P., & Stara, V. (2008). Approaches to e-learning quality assessment. Information Science for Decision Making/Informations Savoirs Décisions et Médiations, 32(2006), 1-7.
Peyton, C. (2017). Students’ Perception of the self-assessment process in high school physical education.
Raspopovic, M., Jankulovic, A., Runic, J., & Lucic, V. (2014). Success factors for e-learning in a developing country: A case study of Serbia. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(3).
Salmon, G. (2004). E-moderating: The key to teaching and learning online. Psychology Press.
Sarikhani, R., Salari, M., & Mansouri, V. (2016). The impact of e-learning on university students’academic achievement and creativity. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 8(1).
Sife, A. S., & Lwoga, E. T. (2014). Publication productivity and scholarly impact of academic librarians in Tanzania: A scientometric analysis.
Simpson, O. (2016). Student support services for success in open and distance learning. Retrieved from www. researchgates.
Ssekakubo, G., Suleman, H., & Marsden, G. (2011). Issues of adoption: have e-learning management systems fulfilled their potential in developing countries? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists conference on knowledge, innovation and leadership in a diverse, multidisciplinary environment.
Tarus, J. K., Gichoya, D., & Muumbo, A. (2015). Challenges of implementing e-learning in Kenya: A case of Kenyan public universities. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(1).
Thomas, K. M., O’Bannon, B. W., & Bolton, N. (2013). Cell phones in the classroom: Teachers’ perspectives of inclusion, benefits, and barriers. Computers in the Schools, 30(4), 295-308.
Wang, W.-T., & Wang, C.-C. (2009). An empirical study of instructor adoption of web-based learning systems. Computers & Education, 53(3), 761-774.
Weaver, D., Spratt, C., & Nair, C. S. (2008). Academic and student use of a learning management system: Implications for quality. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(1).
Zhang, W., & Cheng, Y. L. (2012). Quality assurance in e-learning: PDPP evaluation model and its application. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(3), 66-82.