Multiplicity and Exchange in the World Trade and Applied Diplomacy Structure Regarding Social Network Analysis

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 MSc., Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof. Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In the Multi-relational networks, the study of concurrent choices or multiplicity, and exchanging the choices is important. In this paper, we reviewed multiplicity and exchange in the literature and tried to study these effects in the world network of trade and diplomacy. In addition to reporting the results of exploiting other researchers’ contributions in the case of trade and diplomacy relations on our data, we proposed our own solution to study and evaluate social structure in the situation that multiplicity and exchange effects are significant. Due to the significant number of concurrent choices and choice exchange, we used appropriate probable block model of multiplicity and exchange. Specifically, we found that there are four clear patterns in the world trade and diplomacy network: Trade affected by diplomatic hosting, Trade affected by diplomatic activity, Diplomacy affected by export and Diplomacy affected by import.
 

Keywords

Main Subjects


رضایی‎نور، ج.، لسانی، ر.، زکی‎زاده، ع.، صفامجید، غ. (1393). بررسی شبکه‎های همکاری نویسندگی در حوزۀ فناوری اطلاعات با استفاده از تکنیک‎های شبکه‎های اجتماعی. نشریۀ علمی ـ پژوهشی مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، 6(2)، 250- 229.

جلالی، س.م.ج.، مهدی‎زاده. ا. (1395). بررسی روند کسب‎وکار الکترونیکی با استفاده از تکنیک تجزیه و تحلیل شبکۀ اجتماعی در سال‎های 1980 تا 2015. نشریۀ علمی ـ پژوهشی مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، 8 (3)، 518-449.

ایرانی، م.، حقیقی، م. (1392). تأثیر شبکه‎های اجتماعی بر پایداری کسب‎وکارهای اینترنتی (با تأکید بر نقش میانجی قصد کارآفرینانه در شرکت‎های اینترنتی درگاه بانک ملت). نشریۀ علمی ـ پژوهشی مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، 5 (4)، 46-23.

مردانی، ا.، مردانی، ا. (2015). تحلیل شبکۀ اجتماعی هم تألیفی مقالات علمی سیستم های اطلاعاتی. نشریۀ علمی ـ پژوهشی مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، 7(4)، 930-909.

Abbasi, A., Altmann, J. & Hossain, L. (2011). Identifying the effects of co-authorship networks on the performance of scholars: A correlation and regression analysis of performance measures and social network analysis measures. Journal of Informetrics, 5(4), 594-607.

Acedo, F. J., Barroso, C., Casanueva, C., & Galán, J. L. (2006). Co‐authorship in management and organizational studies: An empirical and network analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 43(5), 957-983.

Anderson, C.J., Wasserman, S. & Faust, K. (1992). Building stochastic blockmodels. Social Networks, 14(1), 137-161.

Boer, P., Huisman, M., Snijders, T., Wichers, L. & Zeggelink, E. (2006). StOCNET: an open software system for the advanced analysis of social networks. Version 1.7. ICS. Science Plus, Groningen.

Bollen, K. (1983). World system position, dependency, and democracy: The cross-national evidence. American Sociological Review, 48(4), 468-479.

Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural hole. Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge, MA.

Burt, R. S. (1997). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative science quarterly, 42(2), 339-365.

Butts, C. T. (2007). Permutation models for relational data. Sociological Methodology, 37(1), 257-281.

Dekker, D., Krackhardt, D. & Snijders, T. (2003). Multicollinearity robust QAP for multiple regression. Paper presented at the 1st annual conference of the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science. Available in: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/ viewdoc/download? doi= 10.1.1.149.9414&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

Doreian, P., Batagelj, V. & Ferligoj, A. (2005). Generalized blockmodeling (Vol. 25). Cambridge university press.

Emilie, M., & Hafner-Burton, M. K. (2009). Network analysis for international relations, International Organization, 63(3), 559-592.

Fienberg, S. E., Meyer, M. M. & Wasserman, S. S. (1985). Statistical analysis of multiple sociometric relations. Journal of the american Statistical association, 80(389), 51-67.

Hafner-Burton, E. M., Kahler, M., & Montgomery, A. H. (2009). Network analysis for international relations. International Organization, 63(3), 559-592.

Handcock, M. S., Raftery, A. E., & Tantrum, J. M. (2007). Model‐based clustering for social networks. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 170(2), 301-354.

Hartigan, J. A. (1975). Clustering algorithms.

Holland, P. W. & Leinhardt, S. (1971). Transitivity in structural models of small groups. Comparative Group Studies, 2(2), 107-124.

Holland, P. W. & Leinhardt, S. (1981). An exponential family of probability distributions for directed graphs: Rejoinder. Journal of the american Statistical association, 76(373), 62-65.

Hubert, L. & Schultz, J. (1976). Quadratic assignment as a general data analysis strategy. British journal of mathematical and statistical psychology, 29(2), 190-241.

Hubert, L. J., & Baker, F. B. (1978). Evaluating the conformity of sociometric measurements. Psychometrika, 43(1), 31-41.

Irani, M. & Haghighi, M. (2013). The Impact of Social Networks on the Internet Business Sustainability (With Emphasis on the Intermediary Role of Entrepreneurial Purpose of Online Branches of Mellat Bank’s Portal). Journal of Information Technology Management, 5(4), 23-46. (in Persian)

Jalali, M. J. & Mahizadeh, E. (2016). The Investigation of E-Business Trends by Using Social Network Analysis Technique during 1980 to 2015. Journal of Information Technology Management,8 (3), 499-518. (in Persian)‎

Katsaros, D., Dimokas, N. & Tassiulas, L. (2010). Social network analysis concepts in the design of wireless ad hoc network protocols. IEEE network, 24(6), 23-29.

Katz, L. & Powell, J. H. (1953). A proposed index of the conformity of one sociometric measurement to another. Psychometrika, 18(3), 249-256.

Krackhardt, D. (1988). Predicting with networks: Nonparametric multiple regression analysis of dyadic data. Social Networks, 10(4), 359-381.

Lorrain, F. & White, H. C. (1971). Structural equivalence of individuals in social networks. The Journal of mathematical sociology, 1(1), 49-80.  

Mantel, N. (1967). The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer research, 27(2 Part 1), 209-220.

Mardani A H & Mardani E.(2015), Social Network Analysis of the Co-authorship Network in the Scientific Articles of Information Systems, Journal of Information Technology Management (JITM), 7(4), 909-930. (in Persian)

Nowicki, K. & Snijders, T.A.B. (2001). Estimation and prediction for stochastic blockstructures. Journal of the american Statistical association, 96(455), 1077-1087.

Pattison, P. & Wasserman, S. (1999). Logit models and logistic regressions for social networks: II. Multivariate relations. British journal of mathematical and statistical psychology, 52(2), 169-193.

Peacock, W. G., Hoover, G. A. & Killian, C. D. (1988). Divergence and convergence in international development: a decomposition analysis of inequality in the world system. American Sociological Review, 53(6), 838-852.

Rezaeenour, J., Lesani, R., Zakizadeh, A. & Safamajid, G. (2014). Evaluating Authorship Collaboration Networks in the Field of Information Technology Using Social Netwowk Techniques. Journal of Information Technology Management,2(6), 229-250. (in Persian)

Sacks, M. A., Ventresca, M. J. & Uzzi, B. (2001). Global Institutions and Networks Contingent Change in the Structure of World Trade Advantage, 1965-1980. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(10), 1579-1601.

Sharara, H., Singh, L., Getoor, L. & Mann, J. (2012). Finding prominent actors in dynamic affiliation networks. Human Journal, 1(1), 1-14.

Smith, D. A. & White, D. R. (1992). Structure and dynamics of the global economy: network analysis of international trade 1965–1980. Social forces, 70(4), 857-893.

Snijders, T. A. & Nowicki, K. (1997). Estimation and prediction for stochastic blockmodels for graphs with latent block structure. Journal of classification, 14(1), 75-100.

Snyder, D. & Kick, E. L. (1979). Structural position in the world system and economic growth, 1955-1970: A multiple-network analysis of transnational interactions. American journal of sociology, 84(5), 1096-1126.

Takes, F. W. & Kosters, W. A. (2011). Identifying prominent actors in online social networks using biased random walks. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 23rd Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence (BNAIC).

Van Rossem, R. (1996). The world system paradigm as general theory of development: A cross-national test. American Sociological Review, 61(3), 508-527.

Wallerstein, I. (1974a). The modern world-system: Capitalist agriculture and the origins of the European world-economy in the sixteenth centenary. Academic Press.

Wallerstein, I. (1974b). The rise and future demise of the world capitalist system: concepts for comparative analysis. Comparative studies in society and history, 16(4), 387-415.

Wallerstein, I. (1976). Semi-peripheral countries and the contemporary world crisis. Theory and Society, 3(4), 461-483.

Wasserman, S. & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications (Vol. 8): Cambridge university press.

Wasserman, S. (1987). Conformity of two sociometric relations. Psychometrika, 52(1), 3-18.  

Winship, C. & Mandel, M. (1983). Roles and positions: A critique and extension of the blockmodeling approach. Sociological Methodology, 1984, 314-344.