The Effect of Cooperation in IT Industry on Innovation Performance in Condition of Implementing Coopetition Strategy

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Prof. in Business Management, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Prof. in IT, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Iran

3 MSc in Business Management, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Iran


In today's business environment companies are facing pressure to innovate and create new knowledge, that these issues have forced them to spend large sums on research and development, involving in high-risk investments, finding exclusive sources and even look for high-tech products with short life cycle. Coopetition strategy (competition and cooperation simultaneously) for companies that are seeking to innovate in order to compete in today's global market, is an essential strategy and provide many innovation opportunities for firms. In this study, the effects of collaboration in IT industry on innovation performance has been investigated in the implementation of the coopetition strategy. This study, is an applied research in terms of purpose, a descriptive survey in terms of data gathering and a correlational study considering relations between variables. The study population consists of Iranian companies operating in IT industry. Data were collected from 180 companies. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling via WARP PLS3. The results showed that coopetition strategy and cooperation in industry has an impact on innovation performance. Also, coopetition strategy moderate the relationship between the cooperation in industry and innovation performance.


اسفیدانی، م. ر. و محسنین، ش. (1393). مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری مبتنی بر رویکرد حداقل مربعات جزیی. تهران: کتاب مهربان.
محمدی، ع. و امیری، ی. (1392). شناسایی و تبیین عوامل مؤثر بر پذیرش نوآوری فناوری اطلاعات در سازمان‎های دولتی با رویکرد مدل‎یابی معادلات ساختاری. فصلنامۀ مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، 5(4)، 218-195.
هومن، ح. ع. (1384). مدلیابی معادلات ساختاری با کاربرد نرمافزار لیزرل. تهران: انتشارات سمت.
Ahuja, G. (2000). Collaboration networks, structural holes, and innovation: a longitudinal study. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(3), 425-455.
Asfydany, M. R. & Mohsinin, Sh. (2014). Structural equation modeling approach based on partial least squares. Tehran. Merciful. (in Persian)
Baruch, Y. & Lin, C. P. (2012). All for one, one for all: Coopetition and virtual team performance. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79(6), 1155-1168.
Bengtsson, M. & Johansson, M. (2012). Managing coopetition to create opportunities for small firms. International small business journal, 32(14).
Bengtsson, M. & Kock, S. (2000). Coopetition” in business Networks-to cooperate and compete simultaneously. Industrial marketing management, 29(5), 411-426.
Bengtsson, M., Eriksson, J.& Wincent, J. (2010). Co-opetition dynamics – an outline for further inquiry, Competitiveness Review. An International Business Journal, 20(2), 194-214.
Bouncken, R. B. & Kraus, S. (2013). Innovation in knowledge-intensive industries: the double-edged sword of coopetition. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 2060-2070.
Brandenburger, A. & Nalebuff, B. (1996). Co-opetition: a revolutionary mindset that combines competition and cooperation in the marketplace: the game theory strategy that's changing the game of business. Edições Harper-Collins.
Chen, M. J. (2008). Reconceptualizing the competition-cooperation relationship: A transparadox perspective. Journal of Management Inquiry, 17(4).
Czakon, W., Fernandez, A. S. & Minà, A. (2014). Editorial–From paradox to practice: the rise of coopetition strategies. International Journal of Business Environment, 6(1), 1-10.
Dagnino, G. B. & Padula, G. (2002). Coopetition strategy: a new kind of interfirm dynamics for value creation. In Innovative research in management, European Academy of Management (EURAM), second annual conference, Stockholm, May (Vol. 9).
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Garaffo, F. (2002). Types of Coopetition to Manage Emerging Technologies, EURAM. Second Annual Conference, Innovative Research in Management, 9-11 May, Stockholm.
Garcia, C. Q. & Velasco, C. A. (2002). Co-opetition and performance: evidence from European biotechnology industry. In The European Academy of Management. Second annual conference-innovative research in management, Stockholm [Links].
Gnyawali, D. R. & Park, B. J. R. (2009). Co‐opetition and technological innovation in small and medium‐sized enterprises: A multilevel conceptual model. Journal of Small Business Management, 47(3), 308-330.
Gnyawali, D. R., He, J. & Madhavan, R. (2008). Coopetition. Promises and challenges. In C. Wankel (ed.), 21st Century Management: A Reference Handbook, pp. 386–398.
Hooman, H.A. (2005). Structural equation modeling using LISREL software. Tehran: Organization of studying books Humanities University (SAMT).
(in Persian)
Kossyva, D., Sarri, K. & Georgopoulos, N. (2014). Co-opetition: a business strategy for SMEs in times of economic crisis. South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, 1(12), 89-106.
Le Roy, F. & Fernandez, A. S. (2015). Managing Coopetitive Tensions at the Working‐group Level: The Rise of the Coopetitive Project Team. British Journal of Management, 26(4),  671–688.
Levy, M., Loebbecke, C. & Powell, P. (2003). SMEs, co-opetition and knowledge sharing: the role of information systems. European Journal of Information Systems, 12(1), 3-17.
Luo, Y. (2007). A coopetition perspective of global competition. Journal of World Business, 42(2), 129-144.
Mohammadi, A. & Amir, Y. (2013). Identify and explain the factors influencing adoption of IT innovations in government agencies with the approach of structural equation models. information technology management, 5 (4), 195-218. (in Persian)
Morris, M. H. A. Kocak and A. Ozer (2007). Coopetition as a small business strategy: implications for performance. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 18(1), 35–55.
Nalebuff, B. J. & Brandenburger, A. M. (1997). Co-opetition: Competitive and cooperative business strategies for the digital economy. Strategy & leadership, 25(6), 28-33.
Padula, G. & Dagnino, G. B. (2007). Untangling the rise of coopetition: the intrusion of competition in a cooperative game structure. International Studies of Management & Organization, 37(2), 32-52.
Park, B. J., Srivastava, M. K. & Gnyawali, D. R. (2014). Impact of coopetition in the alliance portfolio and coopetition experience on firm innovation. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(8), 893-907.
Peng, T. J. A. & Bourne, M. (2009). The Coexistence of Competition and Cooperation between Networks: Implications from Two Taiwanese Healthcare Networks. British Journal of Management, 20(3), 377-400.
Rice, J. & Galvin, P. (2006). Alliance patterns during industry life cycle emergence: the case of Ericsson and Nokia. Technovation, 26, 384-395.
Ritala, P. & Sainio, L. M. (2014). Coopetition for radical innovation: technology, market and business-model perspectives. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(2), 155-169.
Ritala, P. (2012). Coopetition strategy–when is it successful? Empirical evidence on innovation and market performance. British Journal of Management, 23(3), 307-324.
Ritala, P., Golnam, A. & Wegmann, A. (2014). Coopetition-based business models: The case of Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2), 236-249.
Roy, P. & Yami, S. (2009). Managing strategic innovation through coopetition. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 8(1), 61–73.
Schiavone, F. & Simoni, M. (2011). An experience-based view of co-opetition in R&D networks. European Journal of Innovation Management, 14(2), 136-154.
Zineldin, M. (204). Co-opetition: the organisation of the future. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 22(7), 780-790.